Face the Future

In the Game of Empathy, our class was able to interact with people around the world and share our thoughts, both positive and negative. This game was based off the idea that one day in the future, humans will have access to wearable devices that enable you to feel the emotions of those who are connected to you either privately or publicly. We were able to build on the thoughts of those also posting online who were reflecting on the different aspects of this device. For example, a positive imagination could include being able to to feel one’s child throughout the day so that if the child were in distress, the parent would know immediately and would not have to wait to be contacted by the school. Conversely, a shadow imagination includes how someone can easily project their negative emotions onto another person, possibly so much so that the person being attacked would not be able to remove the gear. Many cards were played throughout the day, and overall, many valid points were brought up.

Graphs connecting branching ideas were massive as many people interacted with each thought and added their own questions and ideas. The example below shows how each graph starts with one idea, and then continuously grows. Screen Shot 2016-11-20 at 4.58.46 PM.png

Personally, I thought interacting with people from all over regarding the same topics  was an amazing opportunity. If this device were to actually be created, I am not sure if I would partake in the activity publicly, maybe just with my immediate family. I deeply enjoy my private emotions, yet would love to be able to feel those around me.

Observing Mitosis Lab Report

Title: Phases of The Cell Life Cycle in Root Tips

Purpose: To observe and determine the phases of the cell life cycle by identifying stages of mitosis in a root tip.

Introduction: Cells at the tip of a growing plant are constantly dividing, allowing the root to grow. In Mitosis, a cell doubles it’s chromosomes and then divides into two identical copies of the original cell. These cells divide independently, thus the cells in the root tip are at different stages of cell division. These stages include interphase, the pre-phase where a cell is just a dark mass as the cell doubles it’s unorganized chromosomes and prepares for division. Prophase, where the chromosomes are visible in a microscope as they condense. Centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell. In Metaphase, the spindle fibers move the chromosomes to the equator of the cell and centrioles are at opposite ends. Next comes Anaphase where the sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles. Finally in Telophase, two daughter cells form and each have a full set of chromosomes as well as a nucleus.

Materials:

  • Onion root-tip slides
  • Microscope (400x)

 

Methods:

  1. Set onion root-tip slide on the set-up microscope stage
  2. Focus the microscope to clearly view the onion root under the 40x lens, once viewed, change the lens to 400x and focus finely until the cells are clear
  3. Count vertically the longest line of cells, then count horizontally the longest row of cells. Multiply these two numbers, the result is the total number of cells in the stage.
  4. Identify the cells in the phases of Telophase, Anaphase, Metaphase and Prophase, in this order. Record the number of each phase in a table
  5. Calculate the total number of cells in each phase of the previous step, then subtract that number from the total number of cells in the stage. The result is the number of cells in Interphase, record in the table.
  6. Looking at two more onion root-tips, repeat steps 2-5 and record.

Data Table (Personal)

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Data Table (Class Averages)

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Conclusion

  1. The majority of the cells were in Interphase
  2. Percentages in each stage
    1. Interphase: 81%
    2. Prophase: 12.43%
    3. Metaphase: 1.65%
    4. Anaphase: 1.37%
    5. Telophase: 2.03%
  3. The evidence that shows that mitosis is a continuous process is that each phase is hard to differentiate which showcases how the process is a flow and not definitive.
  4. In each cell observed, there are 4X chromosomes being that Interphase doubles the original 2X chromosomes.
  5. After Meiosis, each sex cell would have 1X chromosome being that each daughter cell (2X) divides in half.
  6. In the zygotes produced, there would be 2X chromosomes.

Based on the data recorded from the class, the cells are in Interphase 81% of the time which is completely reasonable being that the cells need to function as opposed to just reproducing.

Meiosis in Motion

Meiosis goes a little something like this. The process starts with Interphase, which happens before Meiosis even begins. In interphase, the cell grows, copies all of its chromosomes, and then prepares for division. Following this, Prophase 1 begins and the chromosomes condense as well as the nuclear envelope breaks down. Also in this phase, crossing over occurs! After condensing, the chromosomes pair up and each chromosome aligns with its homologue partner so that the two match up at corresponding positions along their full length so they can share part of their DNA. Next comes Metaphase 1 where the pairs of homologous chromosomes move to the equator of the cell. Then during Anaphase 1, the homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the same cell. In the end of Meiosis 1, the chromosomes gather at the poles of the cells and the cytoplasm divides. That phase is known as Telophase and cytokinesis. Next comes Prophase 2, where a new spindle forms around the chromosomes. Following the same pattern comes Metaphase 2, the chromosomes line up at the equator. In Anaphase 2, the centromeres divide and the chromatids move to the opposite poles of the cells. Lastly, in Telophase 2 and Cytokinesis, a nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes and the cytoplasm divides leaving 4 daughter cells.

I worked with Veronica and our process went pretty smoothly. Our school work time did not go as perfectly as we had hoped, being that we had to rerecord a lot of our data which set us back time wise. Luckily we were able to finish 90% of our recording at school and then we met at Veronica’s house on Sunday to finish up and put everything together. I think making a video really helped us to fully understand Meiosis because comparing our knowledge before and after the video, we have grown immensely.

 

BTC and Cell Signaling Round Up!

 

This week we did a lot of fun activities! On Tuesday, we watched all of our classmates Junior BTC videos! As a class, we gained new information on a wide variety of topics. From Gina’s we learned about the ways in which the human body reacts to a virus & three ways a pathogenic microbe can be spread. Lindsay’s taught us about Sickle Cell Disease and all of the aspects of Heme and Hemoglobin. Alexa’s video was all about how love affects us on a biological level, which was amazing to learn because we see love in families, movies, media and our own lives and now we know how it works!

Taylor created a PSA teaching us about why sleep is so important to the human body, especially teenagers like us. Her video suggested we start school at a later time, and was supported by data and by her fellow classmates! In contrast, Veronica’s video was about how caffeine enables you to stay awake. From Keira we were taught the dangers of smoking and how cigarettes affect our DNA. Similar to Keira’s, the video created by Michelle gave us information on how drugs affect our bodies and neurotransmitters. In the next video by Anni, laughter and the biological and evolutionary aspects involved in this reaction were explained. Kyla’s video covered the myths and causes of sleep walking, which many girls in the class realized either they, or someone they knew, had experienced. Helen’s video made us aware of the differences between brown and blue eyes, using the eyes of her own classmates, making the video all the more interesting! Natalie educated the class on pain and aspirin, and my video was all about adrenaline, hormones and our bodies! Many of these videos were connected, and a large connection was cell signaling, bridging great to our new season!

In season 6, cell signaling is huge! Our mastering biology homework covered this topic, but so did our class work. Titled, “My dog is broken: A Case Study in Cell Signaling,”this game had us break into 3 groups and prove our understanding of messengers, signal transduction pathways, receptors, ligands and all of the aspects involved in cell signaling! Thursday, we ended class understanding mitosis on the interactive computers available at our school.

 

This blog post only covers four days, but those days were jam packed and I cannot wait to see where next week takes us!

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AP Bio DQ 2016

My driving question was, what factors impact the color of leaves and how?

I wanted to find out more information on this topic, as fall is one of my favorite seasons simply because I love how the leaves change color!

Enjoy my video below!

 

Works cited:

“Northeastern Area.” Why Leaves Change Color. N.p., 7 July 2011. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

“The Science of Color in Autumn Leaves.” The Science of Color in Autumn Leaves. N.p., 6 Oct. 2011. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

Communications, SUNY-ESF Office of. “Why Leaves Change Color.” Why Leaves Change Color. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2016.

“Plant Pigments.” That Absorb Light. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2016.

Merzlyak1*, Mark N., Olga B. Chivkunova1, and Alexei E. Solovchenko1 And. “Mark N. Merzlyak.” Light Absorption by Anthocyanins in Juvenile, Stressed, and Senescing Leaves. N.p., 12 Aug. 2008. Web. 03 Nov. 2016.